OTD: All hail thou morning of the 17th of October, 1777 in Saratoga

#Onthisday in 1777, there was a new cry “All hail thou morning of the 17th of October, 1777”. 
Baroness Frederika von Riedesel described the surrender: “At last, my husband sent to me a groom with a message that I should come to him with our children. I, therefore, again seated myself in my dear calash; and, in the passage through the American camp, I observed, with great satisfaction, that no one cast at us scornful glances. 

On the contrary, they all greeted me, even showing compassion on their countenances at seeing a mother with her little children in such a situation. 

I confess that I feared to come into the enemy’s camp, as the thing was so entirely new to me. 

When I approached the tents, a noble looking man came toward me, took the children out of the wagon, embraced and kissed them, and then with tears in his eyes helped me also to alight. “You tremble,” said he to me, ” fear nothing.”

 “No,” replied I, “for you are so kind, and have been so tender toward my children, that it has inspired me with courage.” 

He then led me to the tent of General Gates, with whom I found Generals Burgoyne and Phillips, who were upon an extremely friendly footing with him.

 Burgoyne said to me, ” You may now dismiss all your apprehensions, for your sufferings are at an end.” 

I answered him, that I should certainly be acting very wrongly to have any more anxiety, when our chief had none, and especially when I saw him on such a friendly footing with General Gates

All the generals remained to dine with General Gates. The man, who had received me so kindly, came up and said to me, “

 It may be embarrassing to you to dine with all these gentlemen; come now with your children into my tent, where I will give you, it is true, a frugal meal, but one that will be accompanied by the best of wishes.” “

You are certainly,” answered I, “a husband and a father, since you show me so much kindness.”

 I then learned that he was the American General Schuyler. 

He entertained me with excellent smoked tongue, beef-steaks, potatoes, good butter and bread. Never have I eaten a better meal. I was content. I saw that all around me were so likewise; but that which rejoiced me more than every thing else was, that my husband was out of all danger. 

As soon as we had finished dinner, he invited me to take up my residence at his house, which was situated in Albany, and told me that General Burgoyne would, also, be there. I sent and asked my husband what I should do. 

He sent me word to accept the invitation; and as it was two days’ journey from where we were, and already five o’clock in the afternoon, he advised me to set out in advance, and to stay over night at a place distant about three hours’ ride. “
The diary or journal of the German Baroness von Riedesel offers a vivid picture of British General John Burgoyne and the British army’s march from Canada to surrender at Saratoga. 
It also details the Baroness’ subsequent journey through America. Her journal is the famous narrative by a woman from the entire war (and one of the most famous from the Northern Campaign of 1777).
 Because she was traveling with her husband, a Brunswick General in Burgoyne’s army, the Baroness was subject to his fate. After the British surrender at Saratoga, the Baroness, her husband, their three children and almost 6,000 captured British and Hessian soldiers were marched to Boston. There the Baroness and her family were detained in comfortable surroundings for more than a year. During their stay in New York, the Baroness gave birth to a daughter, who was named America. 
When you are dealing with such rich historical series of events like the Battles of Saratoga, there may be some questions that pop up as you learn more about this fascinating junction in our nation’s history. You can visit the Saratoga National Historical Park in the towns of Saratoga and Stillwater. The park website is at http://ift.tt/2cxkI82 
The Schuylerville Public Library http://ift.tt/2dYYY7C and all the libraries in the region have a number of books on the Battles of Saratoga. One of the more popular and well written books is Richard M Ketchum’s Saratoga: Turning Point of America’s Revolutionary War. (1997) New York: Henry Holt. ISBN 978-0-8050-6123-9. OCLC 41397623 
The Saratoga Campaign in 1777 was an attempt by the British to gain military control of the strategically important Hudson River valley during the American Revolutionary War. It ended in the surrender of a complete British army, which historian John Brandow said, “In the 15th Century humanity cried for more room and Christopher Columbus by the grace of God, discovered a Continent. In the 18th Century, humanity cried for greater civil liberty and the citizen soldiery of America, under the smile of the Almighty, won it at Saratoga. All hail thou morning of the 17th of October, 1777!” 
Saratoga is known for being the turning point of the American Revolution. The Americans’ determined resistance at Saratoga, coupled with British strategic blunders, resulted in a stunning defeat and surrender for a British army. This timely victory reversed American military fortunes, boosted patriot morale, and gained them international recognition and support, including military assistance. That is why studying the Battles of Saratoga is integral to a good understanding of the American freedoms.
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OTD: A new hope for patriots, American victory at Saratoga

#Onthisday in 1777, there was a “new hope to the patriots”
British Lieutenant William Digby of 53d Regiment of Foot described the surrender:
 “The meeting between Burgoyne and Gates was well worth seeing. He paid Burgoyne almost as much respect as if he was the conqueror, indeed, his noble air, tho prisoner, seemed to command attention and respect from every person. A party of Light dragoons were ordered as his guard, rather to protect his person from insults than any other cause. Thus ended all our hopes of victory, honour, glory &c &c’. Thus was Burgoyne’s Army sacrificed to either the absurd opinions of a blundering ministerial power; the stupid inaction of a general, who, from his lethargic disposition, neglected every step he might have taken to assist their operations, or lastly, perhaps, his own misconduct in penetrating so far, as to be unable to return, and tho I must own my partiality to him is great, yet if he or the army under his command are guilty, let them suffer to the utmost extent, and by an unlimited punishment, in part blot out and erase if possible, the crime charged to their account.” 
When you are dealing with such rich historical series of events like the Battles of Saratoga, there may be some questions that pop up as you learn more about this fascinating junction in our nation’s history. You can visit the Saratoga National Historical Park in the towns of Saratoga and Stillwater. The park website is at http://ift.tt/2cxkI82 
The Schuylerville Public Library http://ift.tt/2dYYY7C and all the libraries in the region have a number of books on the Battles of Saratoga. One of the more popular and well written books is Richard M Ketchum’s Saratoga: Turning Point of America’s Revolutionary War. (1997) New York: Henry Holt. ISBN 978-0-8050-6123-9. OCLC 41397623 
The Saratoga Campaign in 1777 was an attempt by the British to gain military control of the strategically important Hudson River valley during the American Revolutionary War.
 It ended in the surrender of a complete British army, which historian and Governor Horatio Seymour said, “The surrender of Burgoyne not only gave new hope to the patriots, but it exerted a moral influence upon our soldiers.” 
Saratoga is known for being the turning point of the American Revolution. The Americans’ determined resistance at Saratoga, coupled with British strategic blunders, resulted in a stunning defeat and surrender for a British army. This timely victory reversed American military fortunes, boosted patriot morale, and gained them international recognition and support, including military assistance. That is why studying the Battles of Saratoga is integral to a good understanding of the American freedoms.

OTD: A complete British army surrenders at Saratoga

#Onthisday in 1777, the first complete British army would surrender in world history. 
British Lieutenant William Digby of 53d Regiment of Foot described the morning: 
About 10 o’clock, we marched out, according to treaty, with drums beating & the honours of war, but the drums seemed to have lost their former inspiriting sounds, and though we beat the Grenadiers march, which not long before was so animating, yet then it seemed by its last feeble effort, as if almost ashamed to be heard on such an occasion. As to my own feelings, I cannot express them. Tears (though’ unmanly) forced their way, and if alone, I could have burst to give myself vent. I never shall forget the appearance of their troops on our marching past them ; a dead silence universally reigned through their numerous columns, and even then, they seemed struck with our situation and dare scarce lift up their eyes to view British Troops in such a situation. I must say their decent behaviour during the time, (to us so greatly fallen) meritted the utmost approbation and praise.'” 
The Visitor Center at Saratoga National Historical Park is the best place to start to learn about the Battles of Saratoga. Here you will find the National Park Service Information Desk, Visitor Center artifacts, interactive displays, a overview video, special exhibit gallery, bookstore, and restrooms. The park website is at http://ift.tt/2cxkI82 
The Schuylerville Public Library http://ift.tt/2dYYY7C and all the libraries in the region have a number of books on the Battles of Saratoga. One of the more popular and well written books is Richard M Ketchum’s Saratoga: Turning Point of America’s Revolutionary War. (1997) New York: Henry Holt. ISBN 978-0-8050-6123-9. OCLC 41397623 
The Saratoga Campaign in 1777 was an attempt by the British to gain military control of the strategically important Hudson River valley during the American Revolutionary War. It ended in the surrender of a complete British army, which historian and Governor Horatio Seymour said, “From the day that victory was won, the American soldier felt himself to be the equal of all who could be brought against him, and he knew that he was animated by higher and nobler purposes than those which moved the ranks of his enemies. The whole spirit of the contest was changed. Our armies reaped a double triumph on this field.” 

In 1877, Historian and co-founder of the Daughters of the American Revolution, Ellen Hardin Walworth wrote “The importance of this triumph upon the fortunes of the American struggle for Independence is undisputed. The Battle of Saratoga is declared upon high authority to be one of the fifteen decisive battles of the world. The reactionary feeling it called forth in the Colonies after the disasters and anxieties of the campaign of the previous year in Canada, strengthened public sentiment in favor of the patriotic cause, and filled the depleted ranks of the army. It led directly to the indispensable assistance received from France, and thus to the later recognition of other foreign Governments.”
 Saratoga is known for being the turning point of the American Revolution. The Americans’ determined resistance at Saratoga, coupled with British strategic blunders, resulted in a stunning defeat and surrender for a British army. This timely victory reversed American military fortunes, boosted patriot morale, and gained them international recognition and support, including military assistance. That is why studying the Battles of Saratoga is integral to a good understanding of the American freedoms.

OTD: Baroness remembers the surrender

#Onthisday in 1777Baroness Frederika von Riedesel described the conditions during the Siege in Saratoga: “On the 17th of October the capitulation was consummated. The generals waited upon the American general-in-chief, Gates, and the troops laid down their arms, and surrendered themselves prisoners of war. Now the good woman, who had brought us water at the risk of her life, received the reward of her services. Every one threw a whole handful of money into her apron, and she received altogether over twenty guineas. At such a moment, the heart seems to be especially susceptible to feelings of gratitude” The diary or journal of the German Baroness von Riedesel offers a vivid picture of British General John Burgoyne and the British army’s march from Canada to surrender at Saratoga. It also details the Baroness’ subsequent journey through America. Her journal is the famous narrative by a woman from the entire war (and one of the most famous from the Northern Campaign of 1777). Because she was traveling with her husband, a Brunswick General in Burgoyne’s army, the Baroness was subject to his fate. After the British surrender at Saratoga, the Baroness, her husband, their three children and almost 6,000 captured British and Hessian soldiers were marched to Boston. There the Baroness and her family were detained in comfortable surroundings for more than a year. During their stay in New York, the Baroness gave birth to a daughter, who was named America. When you are dealing with such rich historical series of events like the Battles of Saratoga, there may be some questions that pop up as you learn more about this fascinating junction in our nation’s history. You can visit the Saratoga National Historical Park in the towns of Saratoga and Stillwater. The park website is at http://ift.tt/2cxkI82 The Schuylerville Public Library http://ift.tt/2dYYY7C and all the libraries in the region have a number of books on the Battles of Saratoga. One of the more popular and well written books is Richard M Ketchum’s Saratoga: Turning Point of America’s Revolutionary War. (1997) New York: Henry Holt. ISBN 978-0-8050-6123-9. OCLC 41397623 The Saratoga Campaign in 1777 was an attempt by the British to gain military control of the strategically important Hudson River valley during the American Revolutionary War. It ended in the surrender of a complete British army. In 1877, Governor Horatio Seymour said, “At the break of day one hundred years ago, in the judgment of the world, our fathers were rebels against established authority. When the echoes of the evening gun died away along this valley, they were patriots who had rescued their country from wrong and outrage. Until the surrender of the British army in this valley, no nation would recognize the agents of the Continental Congress. All intercourse with them was in stealthy ways. But they were met with open congratulations when the monarchs of Europe learned that the royal standards of Britain had been lowered to our flag. We had passed through the baptism of blood, and had gained a name among the nations of the earth.” Saratoga is known for being the turning point of the American Revolution. The Americans’ determined resistance at Saratoga, coupled with British strategic blunders, resulted in a stunning defeat and surrender for a British army. This timely victory reversed American military fortunes, boosted patriot morale, and gained them international recognition and support, including military assistance. That is why studying the Battles of Saratoga is integral to a good understanding of the American freedoms.

OTD: The world changed due to the actions in Saratoga

#Onthisday in 1777, the world changed. British Lieutenant William Digby of 53d Regiment of Foot described the morning: 
A day famous in the annals of America.

Gen Burgoyne desired a meeting of all the officers early that morning, at which he entered into a detail of his manner of acting since he had the honour of commanding the army ; but he was too full to speak ; heaven only could tell his feelings at the time. He dwelled much on his orders to make the wished for junction with General Clinton, and as to how his proceedings had turned out, we must (he said), be as good judges as himself. He then read over the Articles of Convention, and informed us the terms were even easier than we could have expected from our situation, and concluded with assuring us, he never would have accepted any terms, had we provisions enough, or the least hopes of our extricating ourselves any other way. 
When you are dealing with such rich historical series of events like the Battles of Saratoga, there may be some questions that pop up as you learn more about this fascinating junction in our nation’s history. You can visit the Saratoga National Historical Park in the towns of Saratoga and Stillwater. The park website is at http://ift.tt/2cxkI82 
The Schuylerville Public Library http://ift.tt/2dYYY7C and all the libraries in the region have a number of books on the Battles of Saratoga. One of the more popular and well written books is Richard M Ketchum’s Saratoga: Turning Point of America’s Revolutionary War. (1997) New York: Henry Holt. ISBN 978-0-8050-6123-9. OCLC 41397623 
The Saratoga Campaign in 1777 was an attempt by the British to gain military control of the strategically important Hudson River valley during the American Revolutionary War. It ended in the surrender of a complete British army, which historian Edmund Morgan argues, “was a great turning point of the war, because it won for Americans the foreign assistance which was the last element needed for victory.” In 2000, R.W. Apple Jr., the chief correspondent of The New York Times wrote about Saratoga being the most consequential battle in a thousand years, “The consequences were undeniable: France entered the war on the American side. When Washington and his ragtag army, wintering in Valley Forge, Pa., received news of the alliance in the spring of 1778, their spirits were lifted; the road was open to ultimate victory in October 1781. The millennium would see other great battles, like Gettysburg and the Marne and D-Day. But in the last 1,000 years, I think, only the defeat of the Turks by Jan Sobieski near Vienna in 1683 rivaled Saratoga. It turned back the tide of Islam. Saratoga did more. It launched two centuries of revolution elsewhere. It marked the beginning of the end of the British Empire. And it breathed life into the United States of America.” 
Saratoga is known for being the turning point of the American Revolution. The Americans’ determined resistance at Saratoga, coupled with British strategic blunders, resulted in a stunning defeat and surrender for a British army. This timely victory reversed American military fortunes, boosted patriot morale, and gained them international recognition and support, including military assistance. That is why studying the Battles of Saratoga is integral to a good understanding of the American freedoms.

On this day

On this day in 1777, British General Burgoyne with over 5,000 British and Hessian troops surrendered to General Gates, with 16,000 Americans, marks the reversal of British fortunes in the war the American victory at Saratoga assures French aid to the American cause, Burgoyne and his military family are escorted to meet with Gates and his military family, both parties retire to a dining fly, set upon a height which overlooks the road to Albany, meanwhile, the British forces have been marched to the open area along the river north of the ruins of Fort Hardy where they stack and pile their arms under the supervision of their own officers, then march across the ford at Fish Creek past Schuyler’s burned buildings and head off towards Albany between two lines of silent and respectful American soldiers to the tune of “Yankee Doodle,” as the troops march past, Burgoyne, Gates, and their dining officers rise to view the procession, Burgoyne delivers his sword to Gates, who holds onto it for a short while, then returns it to Burgoyne, the Convention Army continues marching south on the road to Albany and camps on and around Freeman’s Farm that night, the Baroness Riedesel wrote, “I, therefore, again seated myself in my dear calash; and, in the passage through the American camp, I observed, with great satisfaction, that no one cast at us scornful glances, on the contrary, they all greeted me, even showing compassion on their countenances at seeing a mother with her little children in such a situation,” and Lieutenant Digby wrote, “A day famous in the annals of America;” in 1856, them first meeting of the Saratoga Monument Association was held in the Schuyler mansion, here present Judge John A. Corey of Saratoga Springs, George Strover and several other patriotic gentlemen, Alfred B. Street was also present and read a poem written for the occasion; in 1904, the Saratoga monument dedicated; in 1899, the USS Saratoga departed New York for troubled areas in Central and South American; in 1919, there was à parade to celebrated the return of soldiers from WW I; and in 1951, the Yorkers staged a “Surrender Day” program.
 On this day is a chronological timetable of events that occurred on this day in history around the Town of Saratoga. Discover what happened today in local history by following us on Facebook at http://ift.tt/2kLifwt 
October 17

OTD: Burgoyne wrote Gates

On 16 October 1777, British General Burgoyne at Saratoga wrote American General Horatio Gates the following letter. 
Camp at Saratoga, 
16th Oct. 1777 

In the course of the night Lieutenant-general Burgoyne has received intelligence that a considerable force has been detached from the army under the command of Major-general Gates, during the course of the negotiation of the treaty depending between them. Lieutenant-general Burgoyne conceives this, if true, to be not only a violation of the cessation of arms, but subversive of the principles on which the treaty originated, viz. A great superiority of numbers in General Gates’s army. Lieutenant-general Burgoyne therefore requires that two officers on his part, be permitted to see that the strength of the force now opposed to him is such as will convince him that no such detachments have been made, and that the same principles of superiority on which the treaty first began still exists.
J. Burgoyne 
Gates’s reply is quick and decisive. He outright rejects Burgoyne’s request, and promises that no detachment had been sent and that a reply from Burgoyne must come immediately. This verbal message is delivered to Burgoyne in person by Lieutenant Colonel James Wilkinson, Gates’s Deputy Adjutant General. 
From the beginning of the American War of Impendence, the British had understood the importance of gaining control of the Richelieu River – Lake Champlain-Lake George-Hudson River water route to effectively cut off the colonies north of New York from those to the south. Almost all the troubles leading to the war had originated from New England, and the British thought that if they could put down the rebellion there, the rest of the colonies would give up. British dominance of this traditional pathway of war would also make it difficult or impossible for the Americans to move troops and supplies between the northern and southern colonies. The British make their first attempt to seize this waterway in 1776. The British army, under Gen. Sir William Howe, was successful in taking New York City and some of the lower Hudson Valley area. The force moving south from Canada under Gen. Sir Guy Carleton was stalled by Benedict Arnold on Lake Champlain however, and forced to retreat due to the coming of winter. 
In 1777, General John Burgoyne proposed the plan be tried again, submitting “Thoughts for Conducting the War on the Side of Canada,” this time with himself in command. This paper was his attempt to strengthen the existing New York strategy and was soon approved by Lord Germain (Secretary of State for America). This plan called for Burgoyne to advance south from Canada, up to Lake Champlain, capture Ft. Ticonderoga, and then march south along the Hudson to Albany. In Albany, Burgoyne would form a junction with British General Sir William Howe, who would advance north along the Hudson River from New York City, already under British control. British Colonel Barry St. Leger would come as a third force, advancing west along the Mohawk River Valley. St. Leger’s Force was to act as a diversion, recruiting loyalists along the way and additionally securing a western water route between Canada and New York City. Howe, however, became engaged in a campaign to capture Philadelphia (a plan Lord Germain had also approved believing that American General Washington may become a hindrance to New York, and that Howe would be done in time to reach Burgoyne) and would never reach Albany. St. Leger became entangled in a futile 21-day siege of Fort Stanwix and was forced to retreat to Canada as American forces from the Albany area began to advance upon him. Burgoyne, however, was never informed in a timely manner of his colleagues’ setbacks and continued his march to Albany. Burgoyne’s troubles began as he prepared to cross twenty-two miles of wilderness between Lake Champlain and the Hudson River. Burgoyne’s army struggle to cross the rugged terrain. American General Philip Schuyler directed the Americans to sabotage the narrow route through the wilderness to slow the progress of Burgoyne’s men. An unseasonably hot and humid July, combined with Burgoyne’s need to surround himself with the luxuries of British aristocratic life, which translated into over thirty wagons laden with personal belongings, proved to be a major hindrance to the progress of the British troops. As Burgoyne’s supply lines stretched further, he sent a detachment of Hessian troops to Bennington to capture additional horses and supplies held by the colonists. What Burgoyne did not understand was that there was great disaffection among the Continentals who were enraged by widespread stories of brutalities against women and children. One story that was widely popular was Jane McCrea, an American woman betrothed to a British officer, who was scalped by Indians. The fear of further savagery throughout the frontier by Burgoyne’s native allies helped Americans organize a surprise attack on the Hessians, killing some 900 men at the Battle of Bennington. 
This first real setback created considerable risk for Burgoyne as he approached Saratoga with no reinforcements. The American Northern Army’s General Horatio Gates moved Americans northward from its camp near the Mohawk River in early September, 1777. There were three distinct phases of the Battle of Saratoga. The first and second battles were fought in Stillwater, on September 19 and October 7, 1777. From October 10-17, 1777 Burgoyne’s British troops took refuge in a fortified camp at the siege field in Saratoga (Schuylerville). During the siege, the American force had grown to nearly 20,000 men which surrounded the exhausted British army of 3,000 men. Faced with such overwhelming numbers, Burgoyne surrendered on October 17, 1777. By the terms of the Convention of Saratoga, Burgoyne’s depleted army marched out of its camp “with Honors of War” and grounded (or stacked) their arms at the “Field of Grounded Arms” which is now Fort Hardy Park in Schuylerville.
 A few months after Burgoyne’s defeat in Saratoga, France entered a formal alliance with the recognized American nation in the spring of 1778, and set in motion a chain of events that eventually led to victory for the American War of Independence. 
Saratoga is known for being the turning point of the American Revolution. The Americans’ determined resistance at Saratoga, coupled with British strategic blunders, resulted in a stunning defeat and surrender for a British army. This timely victory reversed American military fortunes, boosted patriot morale, and gained them international recognition and support, including military assistance. That is why studying the Battles of Saratoga is integral to a good understanding of the American freedoms.